in 1517. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. This work followed the traditional scheme of liberal arts. 21 In particular, dictionary entries often contain factual information about the thing named by the word. Some publishers would copy another publisher's work to produce an encyclopedia faster and cheaper so consumers did not have to pay a lot and they would sell more. "Gender Bias in Wikipedia and Britannica". Also notable are works of universal history (or sociology) from Asharites, al-Tabri, al-Masudi, Tabari 's History of the Prophets and Kings, Ibn Rustah, al-Athir, and Ibn Khaldun, whose Muqadimmah contains cautions regarding trust in written records that remain wholly applicable today. An 'encyclopedia' (encyclopaedia) usually gives more information than a dictionary; it explains not only the words but also the things and concepts referred to by the words. Retrieved on: November 17, 2007. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, and its method of production: Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field (the English-language Encyclopædia Britannica and German Brockhaus are well-known examples). Wightman (1953 The Growth of Scientific Ideas a b 1948-, Murray, Stuart (2009). The business of enlightenment : a publishing history of the Encyclopédie. Riverside City College, Digital Library/Learning Resource Center. The most successful of those publications were the Speculum maius (Great Mirror) of Vincent of Beauvais and the De proprietatibus rerum (On the Properties of Things) by Bartholomew of England. 26 During the Renaissance, the creation of printing allowed a wider diffusion of encyclopedias and every scholar could have his or her own copy. 15 It is only with Pavao Skalić and his Encyclopediae seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon (Encyclopaedia, or Knowledge of the World of Disciplines, Basel, 1559) that the term became first recognized as a noun. Both were written in the middle of the 13th century. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Some were women, like Hildegard of Bingen and Herrad of Landsberg. By comparison, Wikipedia is supported by volunteers contributing in a non-profit environment under the organization of the Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved July 27, 2010. An encyclopedia article also often includes many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics. Sidener, Jonathan (September 23, 2006). Pseudodoxia Epidemica was a European best-seller, translated into French, Dutch, and German as well as Latin it went through no fewer than five editions, each revised and augmented, the last edition appearing in 1672. When this worked, capital would rise and there would be a steady income for encyclopedias. Title page of lucubrationes." 1541 edition, one of the first books to use a variant of the word encyclopedia in the title, an encyclopedia or encyclopædia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either. There are 287 different editions of Wikipedia. Falsa lectio, Latin for "false reading" for " Loveland,. Collison, Robert Lewis (1966). The early Muslim compilations of knowledge in the Middle Ages included many comprehensive works. 3 4 5 6 Thus, while dictionary entries are inextricably fixed to the word described, encyclopedia articles can be given a different entry name. The fluidity of electronic media, however, allows new possibilities for multiple methods of organization of the same content. General encyclopedias may contain guides on how to do a variety of things, as well as embedded dictionaries and gazetteers. Notable encyclopedias of the late eighteenth century: eleven successors of the Encyclopédie. The work was published around AD 7779, although Pliny probably never finished editing the work before his death in the eruption of Vesuvius in. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 20th century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship, readership, and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is citation needed and the relevance. Usually these two aspects overlap encyclopedic information being difficult to distinguish from linguistic information and dictionaries attempt to capture both in the explanation of a meaning.