17: English phonology and morphology". Clusters of nasal and stop are only allowed in codas. The English of neighbouring New Zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language. The spread of RP (also known as BBC English) through the media has caused many traditional dialects of rural England to recede, as youths adopt the traits of the prestige variety instead of traits from local dialects. Possessive constructions: With -s: The woman's husband's child With of: The child of the husband of the woman Nouns can form noun phrases (NPs) where they are the syntactic head of the words that depend on them such as determiners, quantifiers, conjunctions or adjectives. Australian English grammar aligns closely to British and American English; like American English, collective plural subjects take on a singular verb (as in the government is rather than are ). Auxiliary verbs such as have and be are paired with verbs in the infinitive, past, or progressive forms. Very often today a conversation in English anywhere in the world may include no native speakers of English at all, even while including speakers from several different countries. Mass nouns can only be pluralised through the use of a count noun classifier,.g. Latin or Greek are still highly productive sources of stems used to form vocabulary of subjects learned in higher education such as the sciences, philosophy, and mathematics. The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that learning to read can be challenging in English. Other adjectives have comparatives formed by periphrastic constructions, with the adverb more marking the comparative, and most marking the superlative: happier or more happy, the happiest or most happy. In most cases, interrogative words ( wh -words;.g. New Zealand English uses front vowels that are often even higher than in Australian English. "he sent it to himself" or "she braced herself for impact. It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. English has become so important in scientific publishing that more than 80 percent of all scientific journal articles indexed by Chemical Abstracts in 1998 were written in English, as were 90 percent of all articles in natural science publications. Old English is very different from Modern English, and is difficult for 21st-century English speakers to understand. In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer. Collingwood, Robin George ; Myres,. By the 7th century, the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in Britain, replacing micro stringtrosor wellness spa the languages of Roman Britain (43409 CE Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by the Roman occupation. Retrieved uman Development in India: Challenges for a Society in Transition (PDF). Varieties of English learned by non-native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners. In most sentences, English only marks grammatical relations through word order. Most verbs have six inflectional forms. The noun must agree with the number of the determiner,.g. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70 of speakers of this Indo-European branch. Doi :.1016/B /00644-1. The Times of India. "IPA transcription systems for English". In spite of the idiomatic meaning, some grammarians, including Huddleston Pullum (2002 :274 do not consider this type of construction to form a syntactic constituent and hence refrain from using the term "phrasal verb". There are different L2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. "Pluricentric and Divided Languages". West Germanic language, english. J.; McArthur, Tom, eds. Around 1430, the Court of Chancery in Westminster began using English in its official documents, and a new standard form of Middle English, known as Chancery Standard, developed from the dialects of London and the East Midlands. Doi :.1016/B /02189-1. International broadcasters are usually identifiable as coming from one country rather than another through their accents, but newsreader scripts are also composed largely in international standard written English. In South Africa, English has been spoken since 1820, co-existing with Afrikaans and various African languages such as the Khoe and Bantu languages. Some dialects have fewer or more consonant phonemes and phones than the standard varieties.